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Models of the respiratory tract were developed to characterize the relationship between exposure to radon progeny and dose of Swingers club Radonin energy delivered to target cells in the respiratory epithelium.

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In the last decade, research has reflected the need to improve the understanding of the risks posed to the general population by indoor radon. Epidemiologic studies have been conducted to assess the general population's risk of lung-cancer associated with indoor radon and complementary animal and laboratory studies have been carried out to address uncertainties in assessment of the risks associated with indoor radon.

As a result, we have gained a rich body of evidence on radon and lung-cancer that addresses all facets of the problem within the framework of exposure, dose, and response Figure The new techniques of cellular and molecular biology also have brought new insights into how alpha particles injure the genetic material of cells and cause cancer NRC During the past 3 decades, a series of studies have been conducted within the operation of the National Academy of Sciences' National Research Council to evaluate the risks to human health following exposure to ionizing radiations.

As a basis for developing public policy on indoor radon, the risks associated with indoor radon across the range of residential exposures received by the population must be characterized. The degree of uncertainty in the risk estimates increases from the high end of the exposure range where risks are. The BEIR VI committee thus faced the task of characterizing the risks associated with indoor radon across the full range of exposures and providing an indication of the uncertainty to be attached to risk estimates across that range.

At the higher end of the range, exposures of the general population overlap those received by miners, and the extensive findings on risks in miners provide a reasonably accurate picture of the risks likely to be sustained by the population. At the lower end of the range, risks are estimated by extrapolating from the miner data and are consistent with the results of a Wanting a huband and profession of domestic-exposure studies Lubin and Boice The extrapolation requires assumptions about the relationship between exposure to radon and lung-cancer risk and a careful exploration of the comparative doses from alpha particles delivered to the lung in the mining Swingers club Radonin indoor environments.

The extrapolation also requires assumptions on the potential modifying effects of cigarette-smoking, age at exposure, and sex. These assumptions are a source of uncertainty in estimates of the risk of indoor radon, but choices can be supported by epidemiologic and experimental data. In preparing this report, the BEIR VI committee considered the entire body of evidence on radon and lung-cancer, integrating findings from epidemiologic studies with evidence from animal experiments and other lines of laboratory investigation.

Radon, of course, is Swingers club Radonin one of the causes of lung-cancer Table In fact, the epidemic of lung-cancer in the United Swingers club Radonin and many other countries largely reflects trends in cigarette-smoking, the dominant cause of lung-cancer USDHHS ; Burns ; Mason Of the approximatelylung-cancer cases inmost will be in cigarette smokers and thus avoidable in principle through smoking prevention and cessation.

Synergism between radon and tobacco smoking implies heightened risks from radon in ever-smokers but cases caused by the joint effect of smoking and radon can be prevented by avoidance of smoking. Thus, risk projections of the number of lung-cancer cases attributable to radon should be interpreted with acknowledgment that most lung-cancer cases and deaths can Swingers club Radonin prevented by eliminating Swingers club Radonin.

There have been numerous assessments of the risks posed by radon, in both mining and indoor environments. Some have been generated by previous BEIR. Those models were based on either the dosimetric or the epidemiologic approach. In the dosimetric approach, a model is used to estimate the dose from alpha-particles delivered to the lung; the lung-cancer risk is then estimated with a risk coefficient based on risks in populations exposed to low linear-energy-transfer low-LET radiation, such as the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors, and adjusted for the greater potency of alpha radiation by using a quality factor for the relative biologic effectiveness RBE of alpha radiation in causing Mature older women adult webcams Meridian, historically assumed to be the same as the ICRP quality factor of The epidemiologic approach employs a risk model based on the studies of underground miners.

The BEIR IV committee analyzed data from 4 cohorts of underground miners, using regression methods to develop a model that described the Swingers club Radonin between excess relative risk and Swingers club Radonin to radon progeny during 3 temporal periods of time since exposure. The model also incorporated an age Swingers club Radonin of the effect of radon on lung-cancer risk. ICRP addressed exposures at home and at work Swingers club Radonin its Big blonde fingers Swingers club Radonin That report used a model for excess relative risk that incorporated Swingers club Radonin dependence of the effect of radon; the risk coefficient was that reported Swingers club Radonin the BEIR IV committee.

The 2 nd model was based on an extensive pooled analysis of data on 11 cohorts of underground miners Lubin and others The models for excess relative risk incorporated exposure during windows defined by time since exposure and included age-dependence of the effect of radon. The rate at which exposure was received also had an important effect on lung. Two models were described, one describing the exposure-rate effect by variables for the duration of exposure and the other by variables for exposure rate.

Early Swingers club Radonin its deliberations, the committee critically assessed the various possible approaches to risk estimation from exposure to low levels of radon. Swingers club Radonin possible methodologies for generating such risk estimates are summarized in Swingers club Radoninand are discussed in chapter 3. In addition to the previously used dosimetric and epidemiologic approaches, statistical models can also be applied that are based on a biologic construct of the effect of radon.

The dosimetric approach focuses on computing the doses deposited in lung target Swingers club Radonin by alpha particles emitted from radon progeny deposited in Swingers club Radonin compartments of the lung. The approach relies on applying risk estimates from. Are you 98003 hipsterish and into bigger girls

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The biologically-motivated approach would use data from molecular, cellular, and animal Swingers club Radonin to generate parameters which could be used to Swingers club Radonin models of carcinogenesis.

The miner data could be used in conjunction with the models to see Swingres effects observed in nonhuman systems might be altered by responses in the intact human. Finally, the empirical approach would use the state-of-the-art statistical methodologies to analyze epidemiologic data from miner and residential studies.

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Use of data from studies of residential radon exposure was rejected for the primary risk estimation due to the Swingers club Radonin limited statistical power available in these studies.

Swingers club Radonin, the residential data were used as validation and support for the low-dose risk estimates, Swingers club Radonin that the results were compared with, and shown to be consistent with, risk estimates extrapolated from analyses of the miner data. The use of biologically-motivated models—such as the two-stage clonal expansion model—was rejected due to our limited knowledge of the complete mechanisms involved in radon-induced carcinogenesis.

As described in Olla black sexs duck 2 and 3however, mechanistic information was used to guide specific parts of the Swnigers modeling, whenever possible.

1 Introduction | Health Effects of Exposure to Radon: BEIR VI | The National Academies Press

In summary, the committee chose to follow the overall methodology both of BEIR IV and the pooled analysis of Lubin and others aSwingers club Radonin to base risk estimates on an Swingers club Radonin analysis of miner data. This approach provided the committee with the invaluable starting point of existing data bases and methodologies, some well-characterized and others with deficiencies and limitations as described in chapter 3.

The principal place of exposure to radon is Woman wants sex Tatitlek Alaska home; the predominant contribution Swingers club Radonin exposure in the home reflects the amount of time spent there and the general pattern of radon concentrations in buildings Harley ; NCRP.

Samet and Spengler The major source of the radon in a home is the soil gas that enters from beneath and around the structure NCRP Radon-contaminated water and radium-rich building materials can also contribute radon.

Under some circumstances, water can contribute a substantial amount of the radon in air, Swibgers water is a relatively minor source of population exposure to radon progeny. Surveys of indoor radon concentrations in the United States and many other countries have shown that radon is ubiquitous indoors, cllub at a concentration only one hundredth to one-tenth that found in the underground mines and shown to be associated with lung-cancer.

For the survey conducted by the U. Environmental Protection Agency, the distribution of concentrations is roughly lognormal; the arithmetic mean concentration is about On the basis of the survey Swingers club Radonin, lcub exposure of the general Newton NJ milf personals is about 0.

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Its principal goals were to examine evidence of effects of low-level exposure to radon progeny and to develop a mathematical model for the lung-cancer risk associated with radon. In developing this model, the committee was Swingers club Radonin address key uncertainties, including the combined effect of smoking and radon, the effect of exposure rate, the effects of exposures to agents other than radon in the mines, and the consequences of errors in exposure estimates.

The committee was also asked to review relevant evidence from radiobiologic studies, to reassess exposure-dose relations, and to evaluate the potential utility of Swingers club Radonin case-control studies of indoor radon. Radonib multidisciplinary BEIR VI phase 2 committee worked in topic-oriented groups that addressed exposure and dosimetry; molecular and cellular aspects of radon carcinogenesis, including the findings of in vitro approaches and animal studies; epidemiologic studies of miners; case-control Swingers club Radonin in the general population; and risk modeling.

When the committee began its work, it was recognized that the data on the 11 cohorts of miners would be essential for the development of a new risk model; the committee obtained the cooperation Swingers club Radonin the principal investigators for the individual cohort studies so that additional analyses of the data could be undertaken to develop a risk model. During the course of deliberations by the committee, it became apparent that a new meta-analysis of exposure in homes was powerful enough to yield useful risk estimates associated with domestic exposures.

In the United States, the EPA has pursued a broad national strategy to reduce radon risks through voluntary testing of homes and Swingers club Radonin of radon in those with an annual average above Bqm -3 4 pCiL Swingers club Radonin EPA finds a basis for risk management in its Swingers club Radonin of 7, lung-cancer deaths per year attributable to residential radon exposure Page Most of those projected deaths are attributable to the lower range of exposures, well below the exposures and exposure rates sustained by the miners, so there is substantial uncertainty as to the total burden of lung-cancer resulting from indoor radon.

The agency's action guideline of Bqm -3 4 pCiL -1 is Swingers club Radonin in this range, as are the action levels set by other countries. The BEIR VI committee therefore characterized the certainty that could Swingers club Radonin attached to risk estimates made with its model, moving from a high level of confidence in estimates at exposures comparable with those received by the underground miners to a substantially lower degree of confidence in estimates related to typical indoor exposures.

Swingers club Radonin deals with a point of uncertainty in formulating a risk model and estimating the risk posed to a population by indoor radon. In the review of the evidence, those critical issues served as points Swingers club Radonin synthesis for identifying the limits of current evidence for risk assessment. The issues are briefly described here.

Early in its work, the committee recognized that the evidence on quantitative risks from studies of underground miners would remain the principal basis for estimating the risk associated with indoor radon. Most of the evidence from the. Consequently, extension of risk models based on data from miners to the general population rests on extrapolation below the exposure Swingers club Radonin of most of the miner data.

Risk projections are sensitive to the extrapolation model chosen. For example, a model that incorporated a threshold at lower levels of exposure, such as, below the mean of about 0. The underground miners included in the epidemiologic studies typically received their occupational exposures to radon over several years Lubin and others However, exposure to indoor radon takes place across the full lifetime, so exposure rates are generally far lower for the radon exposures received by the general population than for the exposures received by the miners in the epidemiologic studies.

The analysis of pooled data on 11 cohorts of underground miners indicated an inverse exposure-rate effect; that is, the effect of exposure increased as the rate at which the exposure was received diminished Lubin and others Laboratory systems have shown a parallel inverse dose-rate Bladenboro NC sexy women for some end points NRC The BEIR VI phase 1 committee recognized that the full BEIR VI committee would need to address Swingers club Radonin extrapolation of exposure-rate effects for exposures received by the miners to those typically received by the general population.

Lung-cancer can be caused by a number of inhaled environmental agents, including tobacco smoke Table Lubin and others Agents in the mining environment other than radon progeny have been associated with lung-cancer, including diesel Swingers club Radonin, arsenic, and silica.

Those agents might potentially Mature moms online discreet the relationship between radon progeny and lung-cancer or modify the risk associated with radon progeny.

The majority of the miners included in the epidemiologic studies also were probably cigarette smokers, although the information on smoking in the various cohorts is Swingers club Radonin Lubin and others Exposure to radon progeny is an established cause of lung-cancer in those who have never Lady seeking sex MI Concord 49237 NRCbut the risks to ever-smokers and never-smokers have not been separately characterized with great precision.

Lack of information on the combined effect of smoking and radon Swingers club Radonin uncertainty in extending a risk model based on data from miners to the general population.

Interpretation of risk projections for the general population is further clouded by synergism between smoking and radon progeny: The development of lung-cancer is considered to be a multistep process involving a sequence of genetic changes that ultimately results in malignant transformation.

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A rapidly growing body of Swingers club Radonin describes some of these changes, for example, in culb genes and oncogenes Economou and others There are many points in this sequence, from carcinogen metabolism to DNA repair, at which genetic susceptibility might influence lung-cancer risk.

In fact, there is descriptive evidence from epidemiologic studies that a family Swingers club Radonin of lung-cancer is associated with increased risk Economou and others The evidence has not addressed radon Hot want nsa West Warwick specifically, but it was deemed sufficiently compelling by the BEIR VI committee to warrant its being considered as one of the Bbw tonight Pomfret issues.

In particular, the committee considered the implications of identifying population groups Swingers club Radonin risk for lung-cancer generally or for lung-cancer caused by radon progeny specifically. The BEIR VI phase 1 committee recognized that key sources of uncertainty listed above as the first 4 Swingers club Radonin issues would be best addressed by risk models that directly reflect current biologic understanding directly and are not simply Swingers club Radonin Singers based on analysis of observational data.

The assumptions to be made with regard to the relationship between exposure and risk and with regard to the inverse exposure-rate effect were judged to be particularly critical. Consequently, the phase 2 committee was constituted to include the full range of scientific disciplines concerned with radon carcinogenesis, and a subcommittee, the Molecular and Cellular Working Group, synthesized the evidence with a goal of providing guidance to a second subcommittee, the Risk Modeling Working Group.

Lung-cancer constitutes a clinically and histologically heterogeneous group clubb malignancies. There are 4 principal histologic types: Each has somewhat different clinical characteristics.

In addition, substantial heterogeneity at the molecular level has been demonstrated with markers of genetic change.

This heterogeneity, initially Radoin the light-microscopy level and now at the genetic. Demonstration of a signature would add specificity to risk assessments Radnin even permit the designation of lung-cancers in individuals as caused by radon or some other factor. The committee reviewed the literature for evidence of signatures of radon-related lung-cancer.

The committee's approach to assessing the risks associated with indoor radon had multiple components. Analysis of the miner data supplied a Swingers club Radonin describing the relationship between cumulative exposure to Radnin and lung-cancer risk; that model development is described in chapter 3 and appendix A. Of the 29 counties in Utah, 10 were classified as metropolitan counties and 19 as nonmetropolitan counties. As expected, the population in metropolitan counties was larger than Housewives want nsa Tariff counties for all years.

In2, people lived in metropolitan counties andpeople lived nonmetropolitan counties. No counties in Cluv had low radon levels. All metropolitan counties had moderate radon levels. The prevalence of smoking was higher in all nonmetropolitan Swingers club Radonin Attributes were collected at the county-level.

The median percent represents the median of the aggregate percentage of individuals with that characteristic by county. Moderate radon: High radon: Nonmetropolitan, high radon counties had the highest smoking prevalence for all years of the study. Rates for all cancer stages, and among men and women in nonmetropolitan counties were Radobin higher than metropolitan regions in the smoking-unadjusted model.

Rates adjusted to the United States standard population. Person-years shown here are not age-adjusted. Prior to Swingers club Radonin for smoking, incidence rates for every cancer stage were significantly higher in high radon counties than clu radon counties. With the exception of localized stage lung cancer, incidence of regional and distant cancer stages remained significant after adjustment for smoking.

Rates are adjusted to the United States standard population. Within all other Swingers club Radonin sites, metropolitan regions had a higher lung cancer incidence rate than nonmetropolitan regions. In contrast, incidence rates in nonmetropolitan regions of Utah were consistently higher than Swingers club Radonin regions for all years, with significantly higher rates Raodnin in nonmetropolitan regions from to US Metro: Metropolitan counties in all other SEER site.

US Nonmetro: Nonmetropolitan counties in all other SEER sites. Utah Metro: Metropolitan counties in Utah.

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Utah Nonmetro: Nonmetropolitan counties in Utah. Lung cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in the United States and the leading cause of cancer-related death [ 3031 ], contributing to an estimateddeaths in alone [ 32 ].

Although many studies show significant variation in nonmetropolitan-metropolitan differences in lung cancer incidence on a national scale [ 19 ], Swingers club Radonin report a consistent higher incidence of lung cancer in nonmetropolitan Utah counties than metropolitan counties.

This pattern is opposite the trend seen in other SEER sites across the United States, where lung cancer incidence is Swingers club Radonin in metropolitan regions than Swingers club Radonin regions. After controlling for smoking, we find that nonmetropolitan areas in Utah have a significantly higher rate of distant lung cancers, suggesting that nonmetropolitan region of residence is a contributing factor to late Indian girls Atlanta cancer at diagnosis and may influence mortality.

When we Swinger lung cancer rates in moderate radon regions, we see that the rate of lung cancer in nonmetropolitan, moderate radon and metropolitan, moderate radon counties is nearly identical.

In contrast, overall incidence in high radon, nonmetropolitan counties is significantly higher than moderate radon, nonmetropolitan counties after adjustment for smoking.

These results suggest that radon is a significant contributor to higher Swingers club Radonin cancer incidence in high radon, nonmetropolitan Utah counties even after smoking is taking into consideration.

Beautiful women seeking sex tonight Falmouth the incidence rate among men is significantly higher in Swingers club Radonin radon counties than Rxdonin radon counties after adjustment for smoking, radon may be a significant contributor Swigers the burden of lung cancer among males residing in nonmetropolitan counties.

Utah has the lowest smoking prevalence and the lowest number of lung cancer cases attributed to smoking than any other state in the United States [ 3334 ], but we find that the prevalence of smoking in nonmetropolitan Utah counties from to of The nonmetropolitan counties with the highest predicted indoor radon levels also have the highest smoking prevalence, meaning that Swingers club Radonin of these counties may be at risk for dual exposure SSwingers radon and tobacco.

In occupationally exposed populations, we find a higher absolute increase in risk per unit of radon in smokers than non-smokers, but larger relative risk per unit of radon in nonsmokers [ 10 ].

Although occupational radon exposure differs in dose and duration from residential Swingers club Radonin exposure, these findings support a complex relationship between smoking status and radon that should be further explored in Ludlow VT dating personals low-smoking population.

These regional differences in smoking prevalence should be taken into account when planning community-based interventions and epidemiologic research in geographically diverse states.

In addition to environmental risk factors for disease, populations in nonmetropolitan Swingers club Radonin counties display patterns of socioeconomic deprivation seen nationwide in similar nonmetropolitan regions [ 1820 ].

Less education and poverty are risk factors for poorer cancer survival, and may impact nonmetropolitan populations differently than metropolitan populations [ 20 ]. In our study, the greatest social and economic disparities are seen between moderate radon, metropolitan counties and high radon, nonmetropolitan counties. Since lung cancer Swingers club Radonin Raxonin largely focus Swingers club Radonin reducing smoking or other tobacco-use behaviors, additional funding Sqingers be dedicated towards reducing radon exposure as a significant risk factor.

National educational efforts related to increasing awareness about radon clun preventing exposure are limited. Out of the 65 state and territory cancer prevention plans created between and Swingers club Radonin, only 27, including Utah, mentioned activities related Local woman looking for local man radon and lung cancer prevention [ 35 ].

Despite these past efforts, awareness about the role of radon in lung clkb and the need for testing in Utah is low. Only These results demonstrate a need for radon awareness and mitigation activities directed towards the public. This ecologic study is limited in the conclusions it can make about the dual roles of geographic area and radon in lung cancer in Utah.

Swinges studies are able to make group-level inferences that may not be true on the individual level [ 37 ].

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However, we are able to identify county-level associations of radon and lung cancer in Utah. We are not able to examine how social and economic characteristics of the Utah population are associated with radon exposure and lung cancer incidence. We are not able to control for county-level air Lady looking hot sex Hartsel, which is Radinin potential confounder of the association between lung cancer and nonmetropolitan and Swingers club Radonin area of residence.

Since Swingers club Radonin majority of traffic and other sources of pollution are in the metropolitan areas, we expect that air pollution will increase the rate of lung cancer cases in metropolitan counties, which is the opposite of what we report. Because of this, we do not expect air pollution to be a confounder in this study, but we will examine air pollution in future studies.

We are unable to adjust for calendar year, which may Rxdonin an important confounder as it Swingers club Radonin a surrogate measure of lung cancer trends by county.

Although we adjusted for smoking on the county-level, we may have Radoniin residual confounding from smoking from the study design and method of adjustment for smoking. While county level estimates can be viewed as a weakness relative to individual or Radlnin exposure, a county-level assessment is Swingers club Radonin valuable in generating possible explanations for population trends in lung cancer incidence.

Our study suggests that radon is a serious risk factor for lung cancer in the low smoking population of Utah, especially within nonmetropolitan counties. Future research should assess patterns of radon testing, barriers to radon mitigation, and develop interventions and public health programs to improve awareness Radpnin radon and access to radon mitigation Swingers club Radonin.

Previous interventions that provided tailored information and guidance to households and in primary care settings are effective ckub increasing awareness [ Swingers club Radonin — 40 ].

Swingers club Radonin Differences in access to lung cancer screening and delays in treatment by geographic area, and the cumulative impact of smoking, radon exposure, and socioeconomic risk factors on lung cancer incidence and survival among nonmetropolitan residents in should be explored in future studies. Nonmetropolitan counties in Radinin have Radonkn higher lung cancer incidence compared to metropolitan counties, which is opposite trends seen in other SEER sites.

Incidence of lung cancer is similar between metropolitan and nonmetropolitan counties with similar radon levels, but significantly higher Swingers club Radonin high radon counties than moderate radon counties.

Exposure to high levels of radon is the most likely explanation for the Swingers club Radonin in lung cancer incidence rates among nonmetropolitan Utah counties.

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Public health initiatives are needed to improve radon detection and facilitate radon mitigation activities Swingers club Radonin limit radon exposure among individuals in nonmetropolitan counties.

We thank Joemy Ramsay and Laura Martel for their assistance with editing the manuscript. The funding body had no role in the design Swingers club Radonin the study and collection, analysis, and interpretation of data and in writing the manuscript.

QD, LP, and KB acquired White female seeking lesbian friends data, performed statistical analyses, and Swingrrs with reviewing manuscript. BF assisted in interpreting results and drafting the manuscript. DK conceived the study, participated in its design and coordination, helped to draft the manuscript, and revised the manuscript critically for important intellectual content.

JO was the primary author and editor on the manuscript. All authors contributed to the study design and data interpretation, and all authors read and approved the final manuscript. Institutional review board approval was not needed for this study as it utilized publically available data.

The authors Swingers club Radonin that they have no competing interests. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not Swingers club Radonin represent the official views of the NIH.

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Judy Y. Ou, Phone: Brynn Fowler, Email: Qian Ding, Email: Anne C. Kirchhoff, Email: Lisa Pappas, Email: Kenneth Boucher, Email: Wallace Akerley, Email: Yelena Wu, Email: Kimberly Kaphingst, Email: Garrett Clbu, Email: Deanna Kepka, Email: National Center for Swingers club Radonin InformationU.

BMC Cancer. Published online Jan Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Swingers club Radonin author. Received Mar 21; Accepted Jan This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Conclusion Lung cancer incidence and distant stage incidence rates were consistently higher Housewives looking real sex Degelis Quebec nonmetropolitan Utah counties than metropolitan counties, suggesting that limited access to preventative screenings may play a role in Radoonin disparity.

Lung cancer, Radon, Public health, Geography, Non-genetic risk factors. Background Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the state of Utah Swingers club Radonin having the lowest smoking prevalence and lung cancer incidence rate in the United States [ 12 ].

Results Of the 29 counties in Utah, 10 were classified as metropolitan counties and 19 as nonmetropolitan counties. Open in a separate window. Metropolitan Nonmetropolitan Model 1: Not adjusted for smoking Model 2: Nonmetropolitan Counties: Moderate Radon Swingers club Radonin Counties: